Location: PHPKode > scripts > Lanyrd API Wrapper in PHP > phuu-lanyrd-php-67808f3/lib/CFPropertyList/CFBinaryPropertyList.php
<?php
/**
 * CFPropertyList
 * {@link http://developer.apple.com/documentation/Darwin/Reference/ManPages/man5/plist.5.html Property Lists}
 * @author Rodney Rehm <hide@address.com>
 * @author Christian Kruse <hide@address.com>
 * @package plist
 * @version $Id$
 */

/**
 * Facility for reading and writing binary PropertyLists. Ported from {@link http://www.opensource.apple.com/source/CF/CF-476.15/CFBinaryPList.c CFBinaryPList.c}.
 * @author Rodney Rehm <hide@address.com>
 * @author Christian Kruse <hide@address.com>
 * @package plist
 * @example example-read-02.php Read a Binary PropertyList
 * @example example-read-03.php Read a PropertyList without knowing the type
 */
abstract class CFBinaryPropertyList {
  /**
   * Content of the plist (unparsed string)
   * @var string
   */
  protected $content = NULL;

  /**
   * position in the (unparsed) string
   * @var integer
   */
  protected $pos = 0;

  /**
   * Table containing uniqued objects
   * @var array
   */
  protected $uniqueTable = Array();

  /**
   * Number of objects in file
   * @var integer
   */
  protected $countObjects = 0;

  /**
   * The length of all strings in the file (byte length, not character length)
   * @var integer
   */
  protected $stringSize = 0;

  /**
   * The length of all ints in file (byte length)
   * @var integer
   */
  protected $intSize = 0;

  /**
   * The length of misc objects (i.e. not integer and not string) in file
   * @var integer
   */
  protected $miscSize = 0;

  /**
   * Number of object references in file (needed to calculate reference byte length)
   * @var integer
   */
  protected $objectRefs = 0;

  /**
   * Number of objects written during save phase; needed to calculate the size of the object table
   * @var integer
   */
  protected $writtenObjectCount = 0;

  /**
   * Table containing all objects in the file
   */
  protected $objectTable = Array();

  /**
   * The size of object references
   */
  protected $objectRefSize = 0;

  /**
   * The „offsets” (i.e. the different entries) in the file
   */
  protected $offsets = Array();

  /**
   * Read a „null type” (filler byte, true, false, 0 byte)
   * @param $length The byte itself
   * @return the byte value (e.g. CFBoolean(true), CFBoolean(false), 0 or 15)
   * @throws PListException on encountering an unknown null type
   */
  protected function readBinaryNullType($length) {
    switch($length) {
      case 0: return 0; // null type
      case 8: return new CFBoolean(false);
      case 9: return new CFBoolean(true);
      case 15: return 15; // fill type
    }

    throw new PListException("unknown null type: $length");
  }

  /**
   * Create an 64 bit integer using bcmath or gmp
   * @param int $hi The higher word
   * @param int $lo The lower word
   * @return mixed The integer (as int if possible, as string if not possible)
   * @throws PListException if neither gmp nor bc available
   */
  protected static function make64Int($hi,$lo) {
    // on x64, we can just use int
    if(PHP_INT_SIZE > 4) return (((int)$hi)<<32) | ((int)$lo);

    // lower word has to be unsigned since we don't use bitwise or, we use bcadd/gmp_add
    $lo = sprintf("%u", $lo);

    // use GMP or bcmath if possible
    if(function_exists("gmp_mul")) return gmp_strval(gmp_add(gmp_mul($hi, "4294967296"), $lo));

    if(function_exists("bcmul")) return bcadd(bcmul($hi,"4294967296"), $lo);

    if(class_exists('Math_BigInteger')) {
      $bi = new Math_BigInteger($hi);
      return $bi->multiply(new Math_BigInteger("4294967296"))->add(new Math_BigInteger($lo))->toString();
    }

    throw new PListException("either gmp or bc has to be installed, or the Math_BigInteger has to be available!");
  }

  /**
   * Read an integer value
   * @param integer $length The length (in bytes) of the integer value, coded as „set bit $length to 1”
   * @return CFNumber The integer value
   * @throws PListException if integer val is invalid
   * @throws IOException if read error occurs
   * @uses make64Int() to overcome PHP's big integer problems
   */
  protected function readBinaryInt($length) {
    if($length > 3) throw new PListException("Integer greater than 8 bytes: $length");

    $nbytes = 1 << $length;

    $val = null;
    if(strlen($buff = substr($this->content, $this->pos, $nbytes)) != $nbytes) throw IOException::readError("");
    $this->pos += $nbytes;

    switch($length) {
      case 0:
        $val = unpack("C", $buff);
        $val = $val[1];
        break;
      case 1:
        $val = unpack("n", $buff);
        $val = $val[1];
        break;
      case 2:
        $val = unpack("N", $buff);
        $val = $val[1];
        break;
      case 3:
        $words = unpack("Nhighword/Nlowword",$buff);
        //$val = $words['highword'] << 32 | $words['lowword'];
        $val = self::make64Int($words['highword'],$words['lowword']);
        break;
    }

    return new CFNumber($val);
  }

  /**
   * Read a real value
   * @param integer $length The length (in bytes) of the integer value, coded as „set bit $length to 1”
   * @return CFNumber The real value
   * @throws PListException if real val is invalid
   * @throws IOException if read error occurs
   */
  protected function readBinaryReal($length) {
    if($length > 3) throw new PListException("Real greater than 8 bytes: $length");

    $nbytes = 1 << $length;
    $val = null;
    if(strlen($buff = substr($this->content,$this->pos, $nbytes)) != $nbytes) throw IOException::readError("");
    $this->pos += $nbytes;

    switch($length) {
      case 0: // 1 byte float? must be an error
      case 1: // 2 byte float? must be an error
        $x = $length + 1;
        throw new PListException("got {$x} byte float, must be an error!");
      case 2:
        $val = unpack("f", strrev($buff));
        $val = $val[1];
        break;
      case 3:
        $val = unpack("d", strrev($buff));
        $val = $val[1];
        break;
    }

    return new CFNumber($val);
  }

  /**
   * Read a date value
   * @param integer $length The length (in bytes) of the integer value, coded as „set bit $length to 1”
   * @return CFDate The date value
   * @throws PListException if date val is invalid
   * @throws IOException if read error occurs
   */
  protected function readBinaryDate($length) {
    if($length > 3) throw new PListException("Date greater than 8 bytes: $length");

    $nbytes = 1 << $length;
    $val = null;
    if(strlen($buff = substr($this->content, $this->pos, $nbytes)) != $nbytes) throw IOException::readError("");
    $this->pos += $nbytes;

    switch($length) {
      case 0: // 1 byte CFDate is an error
      case 1: // 2 byte CFDate is an error
        $x = $length + 1;
        throw new PListException("{$x} byte CFdate, error");

      case 2:
        $val = unpack("f", strrev($buff));
        $val = $val[1];
        break;
      case 3:
        $val = unpack("d", strrev($buff));
        $val = $val[1];
        break;
    }

    return new CFDate($val,CFDate::TIMESTAMP_APPLE);
  }

  /**
   * Read a data value
   * @param integer $length The length (in bytes) of the integer value, coded as „set bit $length to 1”
   * @return CFData The data value
   * @throws IOException if read error occurs
   */
  protected function readBinaryData($length) {
    if($length == 0) $buff = "";
    else {
      $buff = substr($this->content, $this->pos, $length);
      if(strlen($buff) != $length) throw IOException::readError("");
      $this->pos += $length;
    }

    return new CFData($buff,false);
  }

  /**
   * Read a string value, usually coded as utf8
   * @param integer $length The length (in bytes) of the string value
   * @return CFString The string value, utf8 encoded
   * @throws IOException if read error occurs
   */
  protected function readBinaryString($length) {
    if($length == 0) $buff = "";
    else {
      if(strlen($buff = substr($this->content, $this->pos, $length)) != $length) throw IOException::readError("");
      $this->pos += $length;
    }

    if(!isset($this->uniqueTable[$buff])) $this->uniqueTable[$buff] = true;
    return new CFString($buff);
  }

  /**
   * Convert the given string from one charset to another.
   * Trying to use MBString, Iconv, Recode - in that particular order.
   * @param string $string the string to convert
   * @param string $fromCharset the charset the given string is currently encoded in
   * @param string $toCharset the charset to convert to, defaults to UTF-8
   * @return string the converted string
   * @throws PListException on neither MBString, Iconv, Recode being available
   */
  public static function convertCharset($string, $fromCharset, $toCharset='UTF-8') {
    if(function_exists('mb_convert_encoding')) return mb_convert_encoding($string, $toCharset, $fromCharset);
    if(function_exists('iconv')) return iconv($fromCharset, $toCharset, $string);
    if(function_exists('recode_string')) return recode_string($fromCharset .'..'. $toCharset, $string);

    throw new PListException('neither iconv nor mbstring supported. how are we supposed to work on strings here?');
  }

  /**
   * Count characters considering character set
   * Trying to use MBString, Iconv - in that particular order.
   * @param string $string the string to convert
   * @param string $charset the charset the given string is currently encoded in
   * @return integer The number of characters in that string
   * @throws PListException on neither MBString, Iconv being available
   */
  public static function charsetStrlen($string,$charset="UTF-8") {
    if(function_exists('mb_strlen')) return mb_strlen($string, $charset);
    if(function_exists('iconv_strlen')) return iconv_strlen($string,$charset);

    throw new PListException('neither iconv nor mbstring supported. how are we supposed to work on strings here?');
  }

  /**
   * Read a unicode string value, coded as UTF-16BE
   * @param integer $length The length (in bytes) of the string value
   * @return CFString The string value, utf8 encoded
   * @throws IOException if read error occurs
   */
  protected function readBinaryUnicodeString($length) {
    /* The problem is: we get the length of the string IN CHARACTERS;
       since a char in UTF-16 can be 16 or 32 bit long, we don't really know
       how long the string is in bytes */
    if(strlen($buff = substr($this->content, $this->pos, 2*$length)) != 2*$length) throw IOException::readError("");
    $this->pos += 2 * $length;

    if(!isset($this->uniqueTable[$buff])) $this->uniqueTable[$buff] = true;
    return new CFString(self::convertCharset($buff, "UTF-16BE", "UTF-8"));
  }

  /**
   * Read an array value, including contained objects
   * @param integer $length The number of contained objects
   * @return CFArray The array value, including the objects
   * @throws IOException if read error occurs
   */
  protected function readBinaryArray($length) {
    $ary = new CFArray();

    // first: read object refs
    if($length != 0) {
      if(strlen($buff = substr($this->content, $this->pos, $length * $this->objectRefSize)) != $length * $this->objectRefSize) throw IOException::readError("");
      $this->pos += $length * $this->objectRefSize;

      $objects = unpack($this->objectRefSize == 1 ? "C*" : "n*", $buff);

      // now: read objects
      for($i=0;$i<$length;++$i) {
        $object = $this->readBinaryObjectAt($objects[$i+1]+1,$this->objectRefSize);
        $ary->add($object);
      }
    }

    return $ary;
  }

  /**
   * Read a dictionary value, including contained objects
   * @param integer $length The number of contained objects
   * @return CFDictionary The dictionary value, including the objects
   * @throws IOException if read error occurs
   */
  protected function readBinaryDict($length) {
    $dict = new CFDictionary();

    // first: read keys
    if($length != 0) {
      if(strlen($buff = substr($this->content, $this->pos, $length * $this->objectRefSize)) != $length * $this->objectRefSize) throw IOException::readError("");
      $this->pos += $length * $this->objectRefSize;
      $keys = unpack(($this->objectRefSize == 1 ? "C*" : "n*"), $buff);

      // second: read object refs
      if(strlen($buff = substr($this->content, $this->pos, $length * $this->objectRefSize)) != $length * $this->objectRefSize) throw IOException::readError("");
      $this->pos += $length * $this->objectRefSize;
      $objects = unpack(($this->objectRefSize == 1 ? "C*" : "n*"), $buff);

      // read real keys and objects
      for($i=0;$i<$length;++$i) {
        $key = $this->readBinaryObjectAt($keys[$i+1]+1);
        $object = $this->readBinaryObjectAt($objects[$i+1]+1);
        $dict->add($key->getValue(),$object);
      }
    }

    return $dict;
  }

  /**
   * Read an object type byte, decode it and delegate to the correct reader function
   * @return mixed The value of the delegate reader, so any of the CFType subclasses
   * @throws IOException if read error occurs
   */
  function readBinaryObject() {
    // first: read the marker byte
    if(strlen($buff = substr($this->content,$this->pos,1)) != 1) throw IOException::readError("");
    $this->pos++;

    $object_length = unpack("C*", $buff);
    $object_length = $object_length[1]  & 0xF;
    $buff = unpack("H*", $buff);
    $buff = $buff[1];

    $object_type = substr($buff, 0, 1);
    if($object_type != "0" && $object_length == 15) {
      $object_length = $this->readBinaryObject($this->objectRefSize);
      $object_length = $object_length->getValue();
    }

    $retval = null;
    switch($object_type) {
      case '0': // null, false, true, fillbyte
        $retval = $this->readBinaryNullType($object_length);
        break;
      case '1': // integer
        $retval = $this->readBinaryInt($object_length);
        break;
      case '2': // real
        $retval = $this->readBinaryReal($object_length);
        break;
      case '3': // date
        $retval = $this->readBinaryDate($object_length);
        break;
      case '4': // data
        $retval = $this->readBinaryData($object_length);
        break;
      case '5': // byte string, usually utf8 encoded
        $retval = $this->readBinaryString($object_length);
        break;
      case '6': // unicode string (utf16be)
        $retval = $this->readBinaryUnicodeString($object_length);
        break;
      case 'a': // array
        $retval = $this->readBinaryArray($object_length);
        break;
      case 'd': // dictionary
        $retval = $this->readBinaryDict($object_length);
        break;
    }

    return $retval;
  }

  /**
   * Read an object type byte at position $pos, decode it and delegate to the correct reader function
   * @param integer $pos The table position in the offsets table
   * @return mixed The value of the delegate reader, so any of the CFType subclasses
   */
  function readBinaryObjectAt($pos) {
    $this->pos = $this->offsets[$pos];
    return $this->readBinaryObject();
  }

  /**
   * Parse a binary plist string
   * @return void
   * @throws IOException if read error occurs
   */
  public function parseBinaryString() {
    $this->uniqueTable = Array();
    $this->countObjects = 0;
    $this->stringSize = 0;
    $this->intSize = 0;
    $this->miscSize = 0;
    $this->objectRefs = 0;

    $this->writtenObjectCount = 0;
    $this->objectTable = Array();
    $this->objectRefSize = 0;

    $this->offsets = Array();

    // first, we read the trailer: 32 byte from the end
    $buff = substr($this->content,-32);

    if(strlen($buff) < 32) {
      throw new PListException('Error in PList format: content is less than at least necessary 32 bytes!');
    }

    $infos = unpack("x6/Coffset_size/Cobject_ref_size/x4/Nnumber_of_objects/x4/Ntop_object/x4/Ntable_offset",$buff);

    // after that, get the offset table
    $coded_offset_table = substr($this->content,$infos['table_offset'],$infos['number_of_objects'] * $infos['offset_size']);
    if(strlen($coded_offset_table) != $infos['number_of_objects'] * $infos['offset_size']) throw IOException::readError("");
    $this->countObjects = $infos['number_of_objects'];

    // decode offset table
    $formats = Array("","C*","n*",NULL,"N*");
    if($infos['offset_size'] == 3) { # since PHP does not support parenthesis in pack/unpack expressions,
                                     # "(H6)*" does not work and we have to work round this by repeating the
                                     # expression as often as it fits in the string
      $this->offsets = array(NULL);
      while($coded_offset_table) {
        $str = unpack("H6",$coded_offset_table);
        $this->offsets[] = hexdec($str[1]);
        $coded_offset_table = substr($coded_offset_table,3);
      }
    }
    else $this->offsets = unpack($formats[$infos['offset_size']],$coded_offset_table);

    $this->uniqueTable = Array();
    $this->objectRefSize = $infos['object_ref_size'];

    $top = $this->readBinaryObjectAt($infos['top_object']+1);
    $this->add($top);
  }

  /**
   * Read a binary plist stream
   * @param resource $stream The stream to read
   * @return void
   * @throws IOException if read error occurs
   */
  function readBinaryStream($stream) {
    if(($str = stream_get_contents($stream)) === false || empty($str)) {
      throw new PListException("Error reading stream!");
    }

    $this->parseBinary($str);
  }

  /**
   * parse a binary plist string
   * @param string $content The stream to read, defaults to {@link $this->content}
   * @return void
   * @throws IOException if read error occurs
   */
  function parseBinary($content=NULL) {
    if($content !== NULL) {
      $this->content = $content;
    }

    if(empty($this->content)) {
      throw new PListException("Content may not be empty!");
    }

    if(substr($this->content,0,8) != 'bplist00') {
      throw new PListException("Invalid binary string!");
    }

    $this->pos = 0;

    $this->parseBinaryString();
  }

  /**
   * Read a binary plist file
   * @param string $file The file to read
   * @return void
   * @throws IOException if read error occurs
   */
  function readBinary($file) {
    if(!($fd = fopen($file,"rb"))) {
      throw new IOException("Could not open file {$file}!");
    }

    $this->readBinaryStream($fd);
    fclose($fd);
  }

  /**
   * calculate the bytes needed for a size integer value
   * @param integer $int The integer value to calculate
   * @return integer The number of bytes needed
   */
  public static function bytesSizeInt($int) {
    $nbytes = 0;

    if($int > 0xE) $nbytes += 2; // 2 size-bytes
    if($int > 0xFF) $nbytes += 1; // 3 size-bytes
    if($int > 0xFFFF) $nbytes += 2; // 5 size-bytes

    return $nbytes;
  }

  /**
   * Calculate the byte needed for a „normal” integer value
   * @param integer $int The integer value
   * @return integer The number of bytes needed + 1 (because of the „marker byte”)
   */
  public static function bytesInt($int) {
    $nbytes = 1;

    if($int > 0xFF) $nbytes += 1; // 2 byte integer
    if($int > 0xFFFF) $nbytes += 2; // 4 byte integer
    if($int > 0xFFFFFFFF) $nbytes += 4; // 8 byte integer
    if($int < 0) $nbytes += 7; // 8 byte integer (since it is signed)

    return $nbytes + 1; // one „marker” byte
  }

  /**
   * „pack” a value (i.e. write the binary representation as big endian to a string) with the specified size
   * @param integer $nbytes The number of bytes to pack
   * @param integer $int the integer value to pack
   * @return string The packed value as string
   */
  public static function packItWithSize($nbytes,$int) {
    $formats = Array("C", "n", "N", "N");
    $format = $formats[$nbytes-1];
    $ret = '';

    if($nbytes == 3) return substr(pack($format, $int), -3);
    return pack($format, $int);
  }

  /**
   * Calculate the bytes needed to save the number of objects
   * @param integer $count_objects The number of objects
   * @return integer The number of bytes
   */
  public static function bytesNeeded($count_objects) {
    $nbytes = 0;

    while($count_objects >= 1) {
      $nbytes++;
      $count_objects /= 256;
    }

    return $nbytes;
  }

  /**
   * Code an integer to byte representation
   * @param integer $int The integer value
   * @return string The packed byte value
   */
  public static function intBytes($int) {
    $intbytes = "";

    if($int > 0xFFFF) $intbytes = "\x12".pack("N", $int); // 4 byte integer
    elseif($int > 0xFF) $intbytes = "\x11".pack("n", $int); // 2 byte integer
    else $intbytes = "\x10".pack("C", $int); // 8 byte integer

    return $intbytes;
  }

  /**
   * Code an type byte, consisting of the type marker and the length of the type
   * @param string $type The type byte value (i.e. "d" for dictionaries)
   * @param integer $type_len The length of the type
   * @return string The packed type byte value
   */
  public static function typeBytes($type,$type_len) {
    $optional_int = "";

    if($type_len < 15) $type .= sprintf("%x", $type_len);
    else {
      $type .= "f";
      $optional_int = self::intBytes($type_len);
    }

    return pack("H*", $type).$optional_int;
  }

  /**
   * Count number of objects and create a unique table for strings
   * @param $value The value to count and unique
   * @return void
   */
  protected function uniqueAndCountValues($value) {
    // no uniquing for other types than CFString and CFData
    if($value instanceof CFNumber) {
      $val = $value->getValue();
      if(intval($val) == $val && !is_float($val) && strpos($val,'.') === false) $this->intSize += self::bytesInt($val);
      else $this->miscSize += 9; // 9 bytes (8 + marker byte) for real
      $this->countObjects++;
      return;
    }
    elseif($value instanceof CFDate) {
      $this->miscSize += 9; // since date in plist is real, we need 9 byte (8 + marker byte)
      $this->countObjects++;
      return;
    }
    elseif($value instanceof CFBoolean) {
      $this->countObjects++;
      $this->miscSize += 1;
      return;
    }
    elseif($value instanceof CFArray) {
      $cnt = 0;
      foreach($value as $v) {
        ++$cnt;
        $this->uniqueAndCountValues($v);
        $this->objectRefs++; // each array member is a ref
      }

      $this->countObjects++;
      $this->intSize += self::bytesSizeInt($cnt);
      $this->miscSize++; // marker byte for array
      return;
    }
    elseif($value instanceof CFDictionary) {
      $cnt = 0;
      foreach($value as $k => $v) {
        ++$cnt;
        if(!isset($this->uniqueTable[$k])) {
          $this->uniqueTable[$k] = 0;
          $len = self::binaryStrlen($k);
          $this->stringSize += $len + 1;
          $this->intSize += self::bytesSizeInt(self::charsetStrlen($k,'UTF-8'));
        }

        $this->objectRefs += 2; // both, key and value, are refs
        $this->uniqueTable[$k]++;
        $this->uniqueAndCountValues($v);
      }

      $this->countObjects++;
      $this->miscSize++; // marker byte for dict
      $this->intSize += self::bytesSizeInt($cnt);
      return;
    }
    elseif($value instanceOf CFData) {
      $val = $value->getValue();
      $len = strlen($val);
      $this->intSize += self::bytesSizeInt($len);
      $this->miscSize += $len + 1;
      $this->countObjects++;
      return;
    }
    else $val = $value->getValue();

    if(!isset($this->uniqueTable[$val])) {
      $this->uniqueTable[$val] = 0;
      $len = self::binaryStrlen($val);
      $this->stringSize += $len + 1;
      $this->intSize += self::bytesSizeInt(self::charsetStrlen($val,'UTF-8'));
    }
    $this->uniqueTable[$val]++;
  }

  /**
   * Convert CFPropertyList to binary format; since we have to count our objects we simply unique CFDictionary and CFArray
   * @return string The binary plist content
   */
  public function toBinary() {
    $this->uniqueTable = Array();
    $this->countObjects = 0;
    $this->stringSize = 0;
    $this->intSize = 0;
    $this->miscSize = 0;
    $this->objectRefs = 0;

    $this->writtenObjectCount = 0;
    $this->objectTable = Array();
    $this->objectRefSize = 0;

    $this->offsets = Array();

    $binary_str = "bplist00";
    $value = $this->getValue(true);
    $this->uniqueAndCountValues($value);

    $this->countObjects += count($this->uniqueTable);
    $this->objectRefSize = self::bytesNeeded($this->countObjects);
    $file_size = $this->stringSize + $this->intSize + $this->miscSize + $this->objectRefs * $this->objectRefSize + 40;
    $offset_size = self::bytesNeeded($file_size);
    $table_offset = $file_size - 32;

    $this->objectTable = Array();
    $this->writtenObjectCount = 0;
    $this->uniqueTable = Array(); // we needed it to calculate several values
    $value->toBinary($this);

    $object_offset = 8;
    $offsets = Array();

    for($i=0;$i<count($this->objectTable);++$i) {
      $binary_str .= $this->objectTable[$i];
      $offsets[$i] = $object_offset;
      $object_offset += strlen($this->objectTable[$i]);
    }

    for($i=0;$i<count($offsets);++$i) {
      $binary_str .= self::packItWithSize($offset_size, $offsets[$i]);
    }


    $binary_str .= pack("x6CC", $offset_size, $this->objectRefSize);
    $binary_str .= pack("x4N", $this->countObjects);
    $binary_str .= pack("x4N", 0);
    $binary_str .= pack("x4N", $table_offset);

    return $binary_str;
  }

  /**
   * Counts the number of bytes the string will have when coded; utf-16be if non-ascii characters are present.
   * @param string $val The string value
   * @return integer The length of the coded string in bytes
   */
  protected static function binaryStrlen($val) {
    for($i=0;$i<strlen($val);++$i) {
      if(ord($val{$i}) >= 128) {
        $val = self::convertCharset($val, 'UTF-8', 'UTF-16BE');
        return strlen($val);
      }
    }

    return strlen($val);
  }

  /**
   * Uniques and transforms a string value to binary format and adds it to the object table
   * @param string $val The string value
   * @return integer The position in the object table
   */
  public function stringToBinary($val) {
    $saved_object_count = -1;

    if(!isset($this->uniqueTable[$val])) {
      $saved_object_count = $this->writtenObjectCount++;
      $this->uniqueTable[$val] = $saved_object_count;
      $utf16 = false;

      for($i=0;$i<strlen($val);++$i) {
        if(ord($val{$i}) >= 128) {
          $utf16 = true;
          break;
        }
      }

      if($utf16) {
        $bdata = self::typeBytes("6", mb_strlen($val,'UTF-8')); // 6 is 0110, unicode string (utf16be)
        $val = self::convertCharset($val, 'UTF-8', 'UTF-16BE');
        $this->objectTable[$saved_object_count] = $bdata.$val;
      }
      else {
        $bdata = self::typeBytes("5", strlen($val)); // 5 is 0101 which is an ASCII string (seems to be ASCII encoded)
        $this->objectTable[$saved_object_count] = $bdata.$val;
      }
    }
    else $saved_object_count = $this->uniqueTable[$val];

    return $saved_object_count;
  }

  /**
   * Codes an integer to binary format
   * @param integer $value The integer value
   * @return string the coded integer
   */
  protected function intToBinary($value) {
    $nbytes = 0;
    if($value > 0xFF) $nbytes = 1; // 1 byte integer
    if($value > 0xFFFF) $nbytes += 1; // 4 byte integer
    if($value > 0xFFFFFFFF) $nbytes += 1; // 8 byte integer
    if($value < 0) $nbytes = 3; // 8 byte integer, since signed

    $bdata = self::typeBytes("1", $nbytes); // 1 is 0001, type indicator for integer
    $buff = "";

    if($nbytes < 3) {
      if($nbytes == 0) $fmt = "C";
      elseif($nbytes == 1) $fmt = "n";
      else $fmt = "N";

      $buff = pack($fmt, $value);
    }
    else {
      if(PHP_INT_SIZE > 4) {
        // 64 bit signed integer; we need the higher and the lower 32 bit of the value
        $high_word = $value >> 32;
        $low_word = $value & 0xFFFFFFFF;
      }
      else {
        // since PHP can only handle 32bit signed, we can only get 32bit signed values at this point - values above 0x7FFFFFFF are
        // floats. So we ignore the existance of 64bit on non-64bit-machines
        if($value < 0) $high_word = 0xFFFFFFFF;
        else $high_word = 0;
        $low_word = $value;
      }
      $buff = pack("N", $high_word).pack("N", $low_word);
    }

    return $bdata.$buff;
  }

  /**
   * Codes a real value to binary format
   * @param float $val The real value
   * @return string The coded real
   */
  protected function realToBinary($val) {
    $bdata = self::typeBytes("2", 3); // 2 is 0010, type indicator for reals
    return $bdata.strrev(pack("d", (float)$val));
  }

  /**
   * Converts a numeric value to binary and adds it to the object table
   * @param numeric $value The numeric value
   * @return integer The position in the object table
   */
  public function numToBinary($value) {
    $saved_object_count = $this->writtenObjectCount++;

    $val = "";
    if(intval($value) == $value && !is_float($value) && strpos($value,'.') === false) $val = $this->intToBinary($value);
    else $val = $this->realToBinary($value);

    $this->objectTable[$saved_object_count] = $val;
    return $saved_object_count;
  }

  /**
   * Convert date value (apple format) to binary and adds it to the object table
   * @param integer $value The date value
   * @return integer The position of the coded value in the object table
   */
  public function dateToBinary($val) {
    $saved_object_count = $this->writtenObjectCount++;

    $hour = gmdate("H",$val);
    $min = gmdate("i",$val);
    $sec = gmdate("s",$val);
    $mday = gmdate("j",$val);
    $mon = gmdate("n",$val);
    $year = gmdate("Y",$val);

    $val = gmmktime($hour,$min,$sec,$mon,$mday,$year) - CFDate::DATE_DIFF_APPLE_UNIX; // CFDate is a real, number of seconds since 01/01/2001 00:00:00 GMT

    $bdata = self::typeBytes("3", 3); // 3 is 0011, type indicator for date
    $this->objectTable[$saved_object_count] = $bdata.strrev(pack("d", $val));

    return $saved_object_count;
  }

  /**
   * Convert a bool value to binary and add it to the object table
   * @param bool $val The boolean value
   * @return integer The position in the object table
   */
  public function boolToBinary($val) {
    $saved_object_count = $this->writtenObjectCount++;
    $this->objectTable[$saved_object_count] = $val ? "\x9" : "\x8"; // 0x9 is 1001, type indicator for true; 0x8 is 1000, type indicator for false
    return $saved_object_count;
  }

  /**
   * Convert data value to binary format and add it to the object table
   * @param string $val The data value
   * @return integer The position in the object table
   */
  public function dataToBinary($val) {
    $saved_object_count = $this->writtenObjectCount++;

    $bdata = self::typeBytes("4", strlen($val)); // a is 1000, type indicator for data
    $this->objectTable[$saved_object_count] = $bdata.$val;

    return $saved_object_count;
  }

  /**
   * Convert array to binary format and add it to the object table
   * @param CFArray $val The array to convert
   * @return integer The position in the object table
   */
  public function arrayToBinary($val) {
    $saved_object_count = $this->writtenObjectCount++;

    $bdata = self::typeBytes("a", count($val->getValue())); // a is 1010, type indicator for arrays

    foreach($val as $v) {
      $bval = $v->toBinary($this);
      $bdata .= self::packItWithSize($this->objectRefSize, $bval);
    }

    $this->objectTable[$saved_object_count] = $bdata;
    return $saved_object_count;
  }

  /**
   * Convert dictionary to binary format and add it to the object table
   * @param CFDictionary $val The dict to convert
   * @return integer The position in the object table
   */
  public function dictToBinary($val) {
    $saved_object_count = $this->writtenObjectCount++;
    $bdata = self::typeBytes("d", count($val->getValue())); // d=1101, type indicator for dictionary

    foreach($val as $k => $v) {
      $str = new CFString($k);
      $key = $str->toBinary($this);
      $bdata .= self::packItWithSize($this->objectRefSize, $key);
    }

    foreach($val as $k => $v) {
      $bval = $v->toBinary($this);
      $bdata .= self::packItWithSize($this->objectRefSize, $bval);
    }

    $this->objectTable[$saved_object_count] = $bdata;
    return $saved_object_count;
  }

}

# eof
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